# BITSAT 2008 Syllabus

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BITSAT will be of total 3 hour duration (without break). The test consists of four parts:

**Part I : Mathematics
Part II : Physics
Part III : Chemistry
Part IV : (a) English Proficiency and (b) Logical Reasoning**.

All questions are of objective type (multiple choice questions); each question with choice of four

answers, only one being correct choice. Each correct answer fetches 3 marks, while each incorrect

answer has a penalty of 1 mark. No marks are awarded for not attempted questions. While the

candidate can skip a question, the computer will not allow the candidate to choose more than one

option as correct answer.

There will be 150 questions in all. The number of questions in each part is as follows:

Subject

Part I Mathematics - No of questions 45

Part II Physics - No of questions 40

Part III Chemistry - No of questions 40

Part IV (a) English Proficiency - No of questions 15

(b) Logical Reasoning - No of questions 10

Total: - No of questions 150

Instructions

There is no time limit for individual parts of the test. The candidate can go back and change any

of his/her answers among the 150 questions.

If a candidate answers all the 150 questions (without skipping any question), the candidate will

have an option of attempting 12 (twelve) extra questions, if there is still time left. These extra

questions will be from Part I to III (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry) only; four questions from each

part. Further, once the candidate has opted for extra questions, he can not go back for correction of

any of the earlier answered 150 questions.

The questions are so designed that a good student will be able to answer 150 questions in 180

minutes. The extra questions (a maximum of 12) will give a chance to highly meritorious candidates to

score higher. However, candidates should keep in mind the fact that there is negative marking for

wrong answers and any attempt to answer the questions by pure guessing of the answers is not likely

to have any advantage, but may result in a reduction in the total score.

The questions will be selected at random from a large question bank. Different candidates will

get different question sets. An expert committee will ensure that the question sets are of comparable

difficulty level, content, question type etc. In this matter, the decision of the expert committee will be

final and binding on the candidate.

All the questions and instructions of the test will be in English only.

Each candidate who registers for BITSAT will be issued a ‘Hall Ticket’. Candidates with

the hall ticket only will be allowed inside the test centers. Candidates should bring a pen for the

purpose of rough work, signing etc. Blank sheets for rough work will be provided, if required.

Calculators and logarithmic tables are not allowed in the test centers. Candidates are not allowed to

bring any other personal belongings such as mobiles.

All centers are closely monitored for security and candidates’ identity and activities will be

recorded using web cameras and/or closed circuit TV cameras. Anyone violating the rules of the test

center will not be allowed to continue with the test and will be automatically disqualified.

Syllabus:

The BITSAT test will be conducted on the basis of NCERT syllabus for 11th and 12th

class. The detailed syllabus is given in the Annexure. Candidates may refer to the NCERT text books

for the contents. A sample test will be made available to the registered candidates at the BITS website

on which he/she can practice as many times as desired.

Merit List for Admission

As explained earlier, a candidate who has appeared in BITSAT will be eligible for

admission only if he/she gets the required minimum marks in the Physics, Chemistry and

Mathematics subjects of 12th examination. All candidates who have appeared in BITSAT and

are interested in admission will be required to submit an application form with 12th marks and

preferences to different degree programmes offered, on or before 30th June 2007, as detailed later in

this brochure.

The merit position of such eligible candidates (i.e., those who have appeared in BITSAT

and have submitted an application form for admission in the prescribed form with 12th marks,

preferences and the required fees) will be prepared on the basis of their scores in BITSAT. The

cases of bracketing, if any, will be dealt with as described below.

When the score of two candidates are the same, first their scores obtained in Mathematics in

BITSAT will be considered for separating them. If the scores obtained in Mathematics are equal, then

their scores in Physics in BITSAT will be considered for separating them. If the scores obtained in

Physics are also equal, then their scores in Chemistry in BITSAT will be considered for separating

them. If still there is a tie, their PCM total marks in 12th examination will be considered for their

separation.

Syllabus for BITSAT

**Part I: Mathematics**

1. Algebra

1.1 Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of

modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric

interpretations.

1.2 Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system

and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations

reducible to quadratic equations.

1.3 Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic

means, arithmetico-geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric

progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural

numbers.

1.4 Logarithms and their properties.

1.5 Exponential series.

1.6 Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as

selection, simple applications.

1.7 Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

1.8 Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of

determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices,

Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

1.9 Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations,

mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings.

1.10 Mathematical Induction

1.11 Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.

2. Trigonometry

2.1 Trigonometric ratios, functions and identities.

2.2 Solution of trigonometric equations.

2.3 Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles

2.4 Inverse trigonometric functions

2.5 Heights and distances

3. Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry

3.1 Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

3.2 Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle

between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of

two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.

3.3 Circles and family of circles : Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent,

normal & chords, parametric equations of a circle , intersection of a circle with a straight

line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for

two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.

3.4 Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci,

parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent

and point of tangency.

4. Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry

4.1 Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew

lines.

4.2 Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given

4.3 Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three

lines.

5. Differential calculus

5.1 Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference,

product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.

5.2 Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse

trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum,

difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule.

5.3 Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.

5.4 Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.

5.5 Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.

6. Integral calculus

6.1 Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard

functions.

6.2 Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by

partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.

6.3 Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus and its

applications.

6.4 Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by

simple curves.

7. Ordinary Differential Equations

7.1 Variables separable method.

7.2 Solution of homogeneous differential equations.

7.3 Linear first order differential equations

8. Probability

8.1 Addition and multiplication rules of probability.

8.2 Conditional probability

8.3 Independent events

8.4 Discrete random variables and distributions

9. Vectors

9.1 Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication.

9.2 Dot and cross products of two vectors.

9.3 Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

**Part II: Physics**

1. Units & Measurement

1.1 Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units)

1.2 Dimensional Analysis

1.3 Precision and significant figures

1.4 Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, screw gauge, Physical balance

etc)

2. Kinematics

2.1 Properties of vectors

2.2 Position, velocity and acceleration vectors

2.3 Motion with constant acceleration

2.4 Projectile motion

2.5 Uniform circular motion

2.6 Relative motion

3. Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.1 Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)

3.2 Motion on an inclined plane

3.3 Motion of blocks with pulley systems

3.4 Circular motion – centripetal force

3.5 Inertial and non-inertial frames

4. Impulse and Momentum

4.1 Definition of impulse and momentum

4.2 Conservation of momentum

4.3 Collisions

4.4 Momentum of a system of particles

4.5 Center of mass

5. Work and Energy

5.1 Work done by a force

5.2 Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem

5.3 Power

5.4 Conservative forces and potential energy

5.5 Conservation of mechanical energy

6. Rotational Motion

6.1 Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)

6.2 Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration

6.3 Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy

6.4 Torque and angular momentum

6.5 Conservation of angular momentum

6.6 Rolling motion

7. Gravitation

7.1 Newton’s law of gravitation

7.2 Gravitational potential energy, Escape velocity

7.3 Motion of planets – Kepler’s laws, satellite motion

8. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

8.1 Elasticity

8.2 Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle

8.3 Viscosity and Surface Tension

8.4 Bernoulli’s theorem

9. Oscillations

9.1 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion

9.2 Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum

9.3 Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

10. Waves

10.1 Progressive sinusoidal waves

10.2 Standing waves in strings and pipes

10.3 Superposition of waves, beats

11. Heat and Thermodynamics

11.1 Kinetic theory of gases

11.2 Thermal equilibrium and temperature

11.3 Specific heat

11.4 Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics

11.5 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

12. Electrostatics

12.1 Coulomb’s law

12.2 Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions)

12.3 Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy

12.4 Gauss’ law and its applications

12.5 Electric dipole

12.6 Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

13. Current Electricity

13.1 Ohm’s law, Joule heating

13.2 D.C circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer

and Wheatstone bridge,

13.3 Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity).

14. Magnetic Effect of Current

14.1 Biot-Savart’s law and its applications

14.2 Ampere’s law and its applications

14.3 Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

14.4 Magnetic moment of a current loop, torque on a current loop, Galvanometer and its

conversion to voltmeter and ammeter

15. Electromagnetic Induction

15.1 Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents

15.2 Self and mutual inductance

15.3 Transformers and generators

15.4 Alternating current (peak and rms value)

15.5 AC circuits, LCR circuits

16. Optics

16.1 Laws of reflection and refraction

16.2 Lenses and mirrors

16.3 Optical instruments – telescope and microscope

16.4 Interference – Huygen’s principle, Young’s double slit experiment

16.5 Interference in thin films

16.6 Diffraction due to a single slit

16.7 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (only qualitative ideas), Electromagnetic

spectrum

16.8 Polarization – states of polarization, Malus’ law, Brewster’s law

17. Modern Physics

17.1 Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect. De Broglie wavelength

17.2 Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model

17.3 Hydrogen atom spectrum

17.4 Radioactivity

17.5 Nuclear reactions : Fission and fusion, binding energy

**Part III: Chemistry**

1. States of Matter

1.1 Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision,

Significant figures.

1.2 Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept;

Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition & molecular formula;

Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry

1.3 Gaseous state: Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean

square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from

ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.

1.4 Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.

1.5 Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal

systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals,

covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, nonstoichiometric

crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids –

qualitative description.

2. Atomic Structure

2.1 Introduction: Subatomic particles; Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum

and Bohr model.

2.2 Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle;

Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes

(s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.

2.3 Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic

configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.

2.4 Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f

blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, and

valency.

2.5 Nucleus: Natural and artificial radioactivity; Nuclear reactions, Artificial transmutation of

elements.

3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

3.1 Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle

3.2 Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular

shapes

3.3 Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds &

hybridistaion (s & p orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology,

Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic

species.

3.4 Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.

3.5 Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

4. Thermodynamics

4.1 Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive

Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature

4.2 First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities;

Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain;

Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law.

4.3 Second and Third Laws: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free

energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of

formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium; Third Law and Absolute

Entropies.

5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria

5.1 Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality

5.2 Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative

lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point;

osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass.

5.3 Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solidgas),

Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm.

5.4 Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chatelier’s principle.

5.5 Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry

and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base

titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.

5.6 Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts,

Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in Chemical Equilibria.

6. Electrochemistry

6.1 Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation

number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode

potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Gibbs energy change and cell

potential; Concentration cells; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.

6.2 Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific, equivalent and molar

conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis;

Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na,

Al, Cl2, & F2

7. Chemical Kinetics

7.1 Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order of

reaction; Integrated rate expressions for zero and first order reactions; Half-life;

Determination of rate constant and order of reaction

7.2 Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Temperature dependence of rate constant;

Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate

of collisions between molecules; Effect of light.

7.3 Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving

two/three steps only; Photochemical reactions; Concept of fast reactions.

7.4 Radioactive isotopes: Half-life period; Radiochemical dating.

8. Hydrogen and s-block elements

8.1 Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen:

preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water:

Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Hard and soft water; Heavy

water; Hydrogen peroxide.

8.2 s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements

in each group; diagonal relationships.

8.3 Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and

electrode potentials; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia;

Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such

as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.

8.4 Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and

electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo

salts; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of

Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

9. p- d- and f-block elements

9.1 General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of

elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; Extraction and refining of

metals.

9.2 Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides &

halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;

9.3 Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides,

halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicones; Tin and lead:

Extraction, halides and oxides.

9.4 Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds;

Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and

reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid

production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus;

Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids and halides of

phosphorus.

9.5 Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and

amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur;

Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids,

hydrides and halides of sulphur.

9.6 Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids

of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and

reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.

9.7 d-block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic

character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial

compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy

formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4,

K2Cr2O7, KmnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.

9.8 f-block elements: Lanthanides and actinides; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of

lanthanide compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinides and lanthanides.

9.9 Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory;

IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in

qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin

B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative);

Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including

stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

10.1 Classification: Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature.

10.2 Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and

hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanion, nucleophile and electrophile;

types of reactions.

10.3 Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism and general properties.

10.4 Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation, physical properties, electrophilic

and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.

10.5 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear

hydrocarbons; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and

effect of substituents on reactivity.

10.6 Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, chemical reactions.

10.7 Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

11. Stereochemistry

11.1 Introduction: Chiral molecules; Optical activity; Polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations;

Fischer projections; Enantiomerism; Racemates; Diastereomerism and meso structures.

11.2 Conformations: Ethane, propane, n-butane and cyclohexane conformations; Newman and

sawhorse projections.

11.3 Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen

12.1 General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, important reactions and

physical properties of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids,

nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.

12.2 Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of

acid derivatives, basic character of amines and their separation, importance of diazonium

salts in synthetic organic chemistry

13. Biological and Industrial chemistry

13.1 The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.

13.2 Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses;

Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides:

reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides:

elementary idea of structures of starch and cellulose.

13.3 Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple

idea of secondary and tertiary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and

enzymes.

13.4 Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical

composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication;

Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code.

13.5 Lipids, Hormones, Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems.

13.6 Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass

of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic

addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber;

Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.

13.7 Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in

atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions;

Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and

global warming; Green Chemistry.

13.8 Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics,

disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids;

Cosmetics: Creams, perfumes, talcum powder, deodorants; Preservatives, artificial

sweetening agents, antioxidants, and edible colours.

13.9 Other Industrial Chemicals: Dyes: Classification with examples – Indigo, methyl orange,

aniline yellow, alizarin, malachite green; Advanced materials: Carbon fibers, ceramics,

micro alloys; Detergents; Insect repellents, pheromones, sex attractants; Rocket

Propellants.

14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry

14.1 Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid;

Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3 and H2S; Potassium

permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous

ammonium sulphate with KmnO4; Estimation of calcium and magnesium by EDTA

titrations.

14.2 Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+,

Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4

+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO3

2-,

S2-, SO4

2-, SO3

2-, NO2

-, NO3

-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO4

3-, CH3COO-, C2O4

2-.

14.3 Physical Chemistry Experiments: crystallization of alum, copper sulphate, ferrous

sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate;

Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role

of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and

thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong

acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between

acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and

hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen

peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions;

14.4 Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential

extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point

determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf values.

14.5 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous

and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of

alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.

14.6 Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative

estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular

mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Elementary idea of

mass spectrometer for accurate molecular mass determination; Calculations of empirical

and molecular formulae.

14.7 Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro

acetanilide, di-benzyl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and

study of its acidic character.

**Part IV: (a) English Proficiency and (b) Logical Reasoning
(a) English Proficiency**

This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language

as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’

knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also

their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.

1. Grammar

1.1 Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns

1.2 Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives

1.3 Voice, Transformation

1.4 Question tags, Phrasal verbs

2. Vocabulary

2.1 Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters,

Homophones, Spelling

2.2 Contextual meaning.

2.3 Analogy

3. Reading Comprehension

3.1 Content/ideas

3.2 Vocabulary

3.3 Referents

3.4 Idioms/Phrases

3.5 Reconstruction (rewording)

4. Composition

4.1 Rearrangement

4.2 Paragraph Unity

4.3 Linkers/Connectives

(b) Logical Reasoning

The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and

nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data

accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and

to apply rules to new and different contexts. These indicators are measured through performance

on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing

sequences, and completing analogies.

5. Verbal Reasoning

5.1 Analogy

Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular

relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the

alternatives provided.

5.2 Classification

Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain

common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.

5.3 Series Completion

Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the

series or find out the wrong part in the series.

5.4 Logical Deduction – Reading Passage

Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to

identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.

5.5 Chart Logic

Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in

accordance with the information given either in the chart / table or in the question.

6. Nonverbal Reasoning

6.1 Pattern Perception

Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is

required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.

6.2 Figure Formation and Analysis

The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.

6.3 Paper Cutting

It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut

into a definite design.

6.4 Figure Matrix

In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following

the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing

figure.

6.5 Rule Detection

Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures,

a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.